Equity Committee


The Equity Committee Charge

The Equity Committee supports the AMTE board on matters related to equity in Mathematics Teacher Education. The committee promotes awareness, understanding, and sustained attention to equity in mathematics teacher education to ensure that it is part of the work of all MTEs by:

  • Providing teaching and learning resources and recommendations appropriate for mathematics teacher educators positioned anywhere along the ‘equity’ experience continuum to build their knowledge base in equity,
  • Contributing to the AMTE newsletter with updates, reviews, and recommendations of articles, books, activities and other resources designed to support equitable mathematics practices,
  • Contributing to and monitoring a page on the AMTE website for equity-oriented resources,
  • Coordinating a session at the annual conference on equity-oriented topics that are responsive to current challenges, initiatives, and/ or policies.
  •  Collaborating with other committees to assure equity is made explicit in all of the work of AMTE,
  • Promoting initiatives for Board action that enhance the Association’s vision related to equity in mathematics teacher education,
  • Reporting to the Board of Directors, and regularly updating a prioritized list of issues, opportunities, and recommended actions with regard to equity.

The Equity Committee is integrated by a group of AMTE members, to see who is in the current committed, please visit this link: https://amte.net/committee/equity-committee-0

Committee’s Work

Based on its charge. The Equity Committee has been interested in assessing the perspectives, interests and needs regarding Equity in Mathematics Teacher Education of the AMTE community. The Committee has developed and conducted two surveys that have ignited its action and accountability. In the results of the first survey, the majority of AMTE members, who responded to the survey, identified the importance of points below linked to AMTE’s definition of Equity:

  • Understand how issues of power, privilege, race and racism, and other systems of oppression shape their and their students' experiences.
  • Build relationships with families and caregivers.
  • Develop a sense of agency for making changes tied to equity and justice in schools.

As a result of these findings, the Committee put together the set of resources shared in this website that specifically address these issues. The AMTE Equity acknowledges the need of disseminating and encouraging conversations, reflections and practices that pertain to the ideas shared in these resources.

The second survey was motivated through reactions sensed through several presentations during the 2019 Conference, the committee focused on multiple and collective conceptualizations of Equity. It was decided given the lack of consensus on its meaning and sense of divisiveness that these diverse perspectives trigger. These perspectives range from thinking that Equity is an essential approach to any action in mathematics teaching practices to Equity as an approach to think about when working with diverse students, so not always central to mathematics teaching and learning.

Currently, the Equity Committee is exploring AMTE members’ multiple perspectives on equity and how these perspectives both transfer into practices and align with the AMTE Equity Statement. The goal is to share multiple perspectives and practices on Equity to promote communication and widen our awareness on what Equity is and what it looks like when being implemented. The Committee’s work can be summarized in three main initiatives: (a) the analysis of answers to the survey on AMTE members’ definitions and practices of equity in Mathematics Teacher Education, (b) the dissemination of findings through briefs in the Equity Committee Conversation Corner (EC3) in published in Connections, and (c) the gathering and organization of resources on Equity and Mathematics crucial topics identified through the Committee surveys and shared through the Equity Committee’s website in AMTE’s site. Join us during the Equity Committee’s presentation at AMTE annual conference for more details and share with us what you think. 

AMTE Equity Statement

Equity Statement (2015) has been a platform leading this inquiry. In this statement, AMTE defines Equity in Mathematics Education as: Access, Inclusion, and as Respectful and Fair engagement with others (e.g., university colleagues, pre- and in-service teachers, future teacher educators, and P-12 students)./p>

The Surveys

The second survey developed by the Equity Committee included seven items on respondents’ general information, and five on their own perspectives on Equity as MTEs. Four of these questions were open-ended that first asked on their personal definition of equity, this definition impact of their teaching practices, identifying crucial equity issues in Mathematics Teacher Education, and areas for AMTE to take leadership on. The other question was directly linked to the AMTE Equity statement and asked respondents to rate the importance of the Equity components described in the statement and describe why. More specifically, the survey questions are accessible through the link presented below: https://unccprojectmosaic.az1.qualtrics.com/jfe/form/SV_aaVgCmGBN8ZCUrb



Results from the first survey,

Results from the second survey.

Committee Publications (Connections Articles)

Please, visit the AMTE Equity committee to become more familiar with the detailed work that the committee is doing.  Recent publications of the Committee in Connections include:

  • What's Equity? What Do AMTE Members Say It Is?- Link
  • Providing Opportunities for Teacher Candidates to Understand Power, Privilege, and Oppression- Link
  • Mathematics Teacher Educators’ Conceptualizations of Equity- Link

Committee's Suggested Resources on Equity

Below is the set of resources gathered by the AMTE Equity committee, it is the goal that these resources can help spread collective awareness on equity. If you want to add or suggest more, please contact Carlos LópezLeiva at callopez@unm.edu, or Crystal Kalinec-Craig at crystal.kalinec-craig@utsa.edu


Equity in general

Adiredja, A. P. (2019). Anti-deficit narratives: Engaging the politics of research on mathematical sense making. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 50(4), 401-435.

Aguirre, J., Herbel-Eisenmann, B., Celedón-Pattichis, S., Civil, M., Wilkerson, T., Stephan, M., ... & Clements, D. H. (2017). Equity within mathematics education research as a political act: Moving from choice to intentional collective professional responsibility. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 48(2), 124-147.

Celedón-Pattichis, S., Borden, L. L., Pape, S. J., Clements, D. H., Peters, S. A., Males, J. R., ... & Leonard, J. (2018). Asset-based approaches to equitable mathematics education research and practice. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 49(4), 373-389.

Freire, P. (2018). Pedagogy of the oppressed. Bloomsbury publishing USA.

Gorski, P. C. (2012). Perceiving the Problem of Poverty and Schooling: Deconstructing the Class Stereotypes that Mis-Shape Education Practice and Policy. Equity & Excellence in Education, 45(2), 302-319. doi:10.1080/10665684.2012.666934

Gutiérrez, R. (2013). The sociopolitical turn in mathematics education. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 44(1), 37-68.

Gutiérrez, R. (2009). Framing equity: Helping students “play the game” and “change the game.”. Teaching for Excellence and Equity in Mathematics, 1(1), 4-8.

Gutstein, E. (2006). Reading and writing the world with mathematics: Toward a pedagogy for social justice. Taylor & Francis.

Hand, V., Penuel, W. R., & Gutiérrez, K. D. (2012). (Re)Framing educational possibility: Attending to power and equity in shaping access to and within learning opportunities. Human Development, 55, 250-268.

Louie, N. L. (2017). The culture of exclusion in mathematics education and its persistence in equity-oriented teaching. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 48(5), 488-519.

Wolfmeyer, M. (2017). Mathematics Education: A Critical Introduction.


Culturally Relevant/Responsive Pedagogy

Gay, G. (2010). Culturally Responsive Teaching, 2nd Ed.  

Ladson-Billings, G. (1999). Preparing teachers for diversity. In L. Darling-Hammond & G. Sykes (Eds.), Teaching as the learning profession (pp. 86-123). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Ladson-Billings, G. (2014). Culturally Relevant Pedagogy 2.0: a.k.a. the Remix. Harvard Educational Review, (1), 74.                                       

Aguirre, J.M, Zavala, M., & Katanyoutanant, T. (2012). Developing robust forms of pre-service teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge through culturally responsive mathematics teaching analysis.  Mathematics Teacher Education and Development, 14(2), 113-136. 

Aguirre, J.M. & Zavala, M. (2013). Making culturally responsive mathematics teaching explicit: An innovative lesson analysis tool. Pedagogies: An International Journal. DOI: 10.1080/1554480X.2013.768518

Anderson, S. E. (1997). World math curriculum: Fighting eurocentrism in mathematics. In A. B. Powell, & M. Frankenstein (Eds.). Ethnomathematics: Challenging eurocentrism in mathematics education (pp. 291-306). State University of New York Press.

Bartell, T. G., Foote, M. Q., Roth McDuffie, A., Turner, E. E., & Drake, C. (2017). Connecting children’s mathematical thinking with children’s backgrounds, knowledge, and experiences in mathematics instruction. In S. Celedón-Pattichis, D. White, & M. Civil (Eds.), Access and equity: Promoting high-quality mathematics, (pp. 161-173). National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

Bartell, T. G., Turner, E. E., Aguirre, J. M., Drake, C., Foote, M. Q., & Roth McDuffie, A. (2017). Connecting mathematical thinking and community knowledge. Teaching Children Mathematics, 23(6). 326-328.

Bishop, A. J. (1988). Mathematical enculturation: A cultural perspective on mathematics education. Kluwer Academic Publications.

Cajete, G. (2000). Native science. Clear Light Publishers.

D’Ambrosio, U. (1987). Reflections on ethnomathematics. International Studies Group in Ethnomathematics Newsletter 3 (1) (September 1987).

D’Ambrosio, U. (2001). What is ethnomathematics, and how can it help children in schools?  Teaching Children Mathematics 7(6), 308.

Díez-Palomar, J. & LópezLeiva, C. A. (2018). Rethinking the teaching and learning of Latina/o students to promote a multi-cultural mathematics education. In C. Clark, A. VandeHei, K. J. Fasching-Varner, & Z. Haad (Eds.), Volume 2: Multicultural Curriculum Transformation in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) of the PK-12 Multicultural Curriculum Transformation Handbook Series (pp. 39-66). Rowman & Lexington Books.

Fasheh. M. J. (2012). The role of mathematics in the destruction of communities, and what we can do to reverse this process, including using mathematics. In O. Skovmose & B. Greer (Eds). Opening the cage: Critique and politics of mathematics education (pp. 93-106). The Netherlands: Sense.

Frankenstein, M. (1983). Critical mathematics education: An application of Paulo Freire’s epistemology. Sage Publications, Inc, 165, (4), 315–339.

Kokka, K. (2019). Healing-informed social justice mathematics: Promoting students’ sociopolitical consciousness and well-being in mathematics class. Urban Education, 54(9), 1179-1209.

Land, T. J., Bartell, T. G., Drake, C., Foote, M. Q., Roth McDuffie, A., Turner, E. E., & Aguirre, J. M. (2018). Curriculum spaces for connection to children’s multiple mathematical knowledge bases. Journal of Curriculum Studies, on line first Feb. 2018

LópezLeiva, C. A., Torres, Z., & Khisty, L. L. (2013). Acknowledging Spanish and English resources during mathematical reasoning. Cultural Studies of Science Education, 8(4), 919-934. doi: 10.1007/s11422-013-9518-3.

Moll, L.C., Amanti, C., Neff, D., & Gonzalez, N. (1992). Funds of knowledge for teaching: Using a qualitative approach to connect homes and classrooms. Theory into practice, 31(2), 132-141.

Nasir, N. (2002). Identity, goals, and learning: mathematics in cultural practice. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 4(2/3), 213-247.

Nieto, S. (2002a). Multicultural education and school reform. In Language, culture, and teaching. Critical perspectives for a new century (pp.27-50). Lawrence Erlbaum.

Nieto, S. (2002b). Cultural difference and educational change in a sociopolitical context. In Language, culture, and teaching. Critical perspectives for a new century (pp.51-77). Lawrence Erlbraum.

Paris, D. (2012). Culturally sustaining pedagogy: A needed change in stance, terminology, and practice. Educational Researcher,41(3), 93-97.

Powell, A. B. & Temple, O. L. (2001). Seeding ethnomathematics with oware: Sankofa. Teaching Children Mathematics, Winter, 369- 375.

Rosa, M. & Orey, D.C. (2014). Ethnomathematics: Connecting cultural aspects of mathematics through culturally relevant pedagogy. In Mathematics Education and Society Conference, 898-911.

Roth McDuffie, A., Foote, M. Q., Bolson, C., Turner, E. E.. Aguirre, J. M., Bartell, T. G., Drake, C., & Land, T. (2014). Using video analysis to support prospective K-8 teachers’ noticing of students’ multiple mathematical knowledge bases. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 17, 245-270. DOI 10.1007/s10857-013-9257-0.

Sleeter, C. (2005). Un-Standardizing Curriculum: Multicultural teaching in the standards-based classroom. Teachers College Press.

Soo-hoo, S. (2004). We change the world by doing nothing. Teacher Education Quarterly, Winter, 199-211.

Turner, E. E., Foote, M. Q., Stoehr, K. J., Roth McDuffie, A., Aguirre, J. M., Bartell, T. G., & Drake, C. (2016). Learning to leverage children’s multiple mathematical knowledge bases in instruction. Journal of Urban Mathematics Education, 9(1), 48-78.

Turner, E. E., Aguirre, J. M., Bartell, T. G., Drake, C., Foote, M. Q., Roth McDuffie, A. (2014). Making meaningful connections with mathematics and the community: Lessons from pre-service teachers. TODOS Research Monograph. 30-49.

Valenzuela, A. (1999). Subtractive schooling: US-Mexican youth and politics of caring. State University of New York Press.

Foote, M. Q., Roth McDuffie, A., Turner, E. E., Aguirre, J. M., Bartell, T. G., & Drake, C. (2013). Orientations of prospective teachers towards students' families and communities. Teaching and Teacher Education, 35(126-136).

Aguirre, J. M., Turner, E. E., Bartell, T. G., Kalinec-Craig, C., Foote, M. Q., Roth McDuffie, A., & Drake, C. (2013). Making connections in practice: How prospective elementary teachers connect children’s mathematics thinking and community funds of knowledge in mathematics instruction. Journal of Teacher Education, 64(2), 178-192.

The above articles come from Teachers Empowered to Advance Change in Mathematics: Modules for Mathematics Teacher Education

The website at TEACHMATH.info contains 4 carefully curated, research-based modules specifically for use in K-8 mathematics methods courses. Each module builds pre-service teacher knowledge on how to draw on "students' multiple mathematics knowledge bases", a concept that is rooted in funds of knowledge and culturally responsive teaching. Each module also contains information to guide the MTE in how to set up and implement the tasks.



Joseph, N.M., Hailu, M., & Boston, D. L. (2017). Black Girls’ and Women's Persistence in the P-20 Mathematics Pipeline: Two Decades of Children and Youth Education Research. Review of Research in Education, 41(1), 203-227.

Stoehr, K. (2017a). Mathematics anxiety: One size does not fit all. Journal of Teacher Education, 68(1), 69–84.

Rubel, L. H. (2016). Speaking up and speaking out about gender in mathematics. The Mathematics Teacher, 109(6), 434-439.

Esmonde, I. (2011). Snips and snails and puppy dogs’ tails: Genderism and mathematics education. For the Learning of Mathematics, 31(2), 27–31.

Damarin, S., & Erchick, D. B. (2010). Toward clarifying the meanings of gender in mathematics education research. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 41(4), 310–323.

Leyva, L. A. (in press). Black women's counter-stories of resilience and within-group tensions in the white, patriarchal space of mathematics education. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 52(2).

Leyva, L.A., Quea, R., Weber, K., Battey, D., & López, D. (2021). Detailing racialized and gendered mechanisms of undergraduate precalculus and calculus classroom instruction. Cognition & Instruction, 39(1).

Leyva, L. A. (2017). Unpacking the male superiority myth and masculinization of mathematics at the intersections: A review of research on gender in mathematics education. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 48(4), 397-452.

McGraw, R., Lubienski, S. T., & Strutchens, M. E. (2006). A closer look at gender in NAEP mathematics achievement and affect data: Intersections with achievement, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 37(2), 129–150.

Riegle-Crumb, C., & Humphries, M. (2012). Exploring bias in math teachers’ perceptions of students’ ability by gender and race/ethnicity. Gender & Society, 26(2), 290–322.

Robinson, J. P., & Lubienski, S. T. (2011). The development of gender achievement gaps in mathematics and reading during elementary and middle school: Examining direct cognitive assessments and teacher ratings. American Educational Research Journal, 48(2), 268–302.

Mendick, H. (2005). A beautiful myth? The gendering of being/doing “good at maths.” Gender and Education, 17(2), 203–219. 

Barnes, M. (2000). Effects of dominant and subordinate masculinities on interactions in a collaborative learning classroom. In J. Boaler (Ed.), Multiple perspectives on mathematics teaching and learning (pp. 145–169). Ablex.

Gholson, M., L., & Martin, D. B. (2014). Smart girls, Black girls, Mean girls, and bullies: At the intersection of identities and the mediating role of young girls' social network in mathematical communities of practice. Journal of Education, 194(1), 19-33.

Lubienski, S. T. & Ganley, C. M. (2017).  Research on gender and mathematics.  In J. Cai (Ed.) Compendium for research in mathematics education (pp 649-666).  National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

This Compendium chapter synthesizes the latest research on gender and mathematics, and where the field might fruitfully go from here. This chapter is written for a broad research audience (Intermediate level).

Ganley, C. & Lubienski, S. (2016). Current research on gender differences in math. Teaching Children Mathematics blogNational Council of Teachers of Mathematics, May 9, 2016. http://www.nctm.org/Publications/Teaching-Children-Mathematics/Blog/Current-Research-on-Gender-Differences-in-Math/

Ganley, C. & Lubienski, S. (2016). What can we do about gender differences in math? Teaching Children Mathematics blogNational Council of Teachers of Mathematics, May 23, 2016. http://www.nctm.org/Publications/Teaching-Children-Mathematics/Blog/What-Can-We-Do-about-Gender-Differences-in-Math_/

This pair of NCTM blog posts essentially distill the Compendium chapter that synthesizes recent research on Gender (Lubienski & Ganley, 2017).  The blog posts make the content accessible and meaningful for teachers.  The two brief posts should be read in sequence, as the May 9 post focuses on what we know about gender differences in math, and the May 23 post discusses implications for teachers. (Beginning level.)

Lubienski, S. T. (2007).  What we can do about achievement disparities. Educational Leadership, 65(3), 54-59.

The focus of this brief practitioner article is educational equity around issues of social class, but some themes apply to equity more broadly.  The article contains concrete advice for teaching mathematics: (1) push mathematical meaning, (2) scaffold problem solving, (3) use data to analyze and address students’ needs, and (4) protect low-SES students’ interests as school policies are created and implemented.  I recommend this brief article as a way for educators to reflect on how they can help increase educational equity for their marginalized students. (Beginning level)

Cimpian, J. R., Lubienski, S. T., Timmer, J. D., Makowski, M. B., & Miller, E. K. (2016). Have gender gaps in math closed? Achievement, teacher perceptions, and learning behaviors across two ECLS-K cohorts. AERA Open2(4), 1-19, DOI: 10.1177/2332858416673617.

This article closely examines gender disparities in math performance, learning behaviors and teacher ratings of math proficiency, using two waves of U.S. data on elementary school students.  One interesting finding is that girls’ tendency to be diligent in school seems to have more payoff among low achievers than higher achievers.  This difference in “payoff” may contribute to the troubling, relatively large gender differences favoring males in mathematics performance at the top of the distribution.  This is a research article (Advanced level).


GLBTQA+ Resource List

Documents and Websites


Airton, L., & Koecher, A. (2019). How to hit a moving target: 35 years of gender and sexual diversity in teacher education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 80, 190-204. https://www.gcedclearinghouse.org/sites/default/files/resources/190441eng.pdf

Dubbs, C. (2016). A Queer Turn in Mathematics Education Research: Centering the Experience of Marginalized Queer Students. North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Educationhttps://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED583735

Leyva, L. A. (2017). Unpacking the male superiority myth and masculinization of mathematics at the intersections: A review of research on gender in mathematics education. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 48(4), 397-433.

Rands, K. (2016). Mathematical inqueery. In Critical Concepts in Queer Studies and Education (pp. 183-192). Palgrave Macmillan, New York.

Rubel, L. H. (2016). Speaking up and speaking out about gender in mathematics. The Mathematics Teacher109(6), 434-439.

Savage, T. A., & Harley, D. A. (2009). A Place at the Blackboard: Including Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Intersex, and Queer/Questioning Issues in the Education Process. Multicultural Education16(4), 2-9.

Yeh, C., & Otis, B. M. (2019). Mathematics for Whom: Reframing and Humanizing Mathematics. Critical Mathematical Inquiry, Occasional Paper Series, (41), 85-98. Retrieved from https://educate.bankstreet.edu/occasional-paper- series/vol2019/iss41/8

Yeh, C., & Rubel, L. (2020). Queering Mathematics: Disrupting Binary Oppositions in Mathematics Pre-service Teacher Education. In Borders in Mathematics Pre-Service Teacher Education (pp. 227-243). Springer, Cham.


Parents and Math

Civil, M. (2009). A reflection on my work with Latino parents and mathematics.Teaching for Excellence and Equity in Mathematics,1(1), 9–13.

Civil, M., Bratton, J., & Quintos, B. (2005). Parents and mathematics education in a Latino community: Redefining parental participation. Multicultural Education, 13(2), 60-64.

Civil, M. & Menéndez, J.M. (2010) Involving Latino and Latina parents in their children’s mathematics education. (Research Brief), The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 1–6.

Civil, M. & Menéndez, J. M. (2012). “Parents and children come together”: Latino and Latina parents speak up about mathematics teaching and learning. In S. Celedón-Pattichis & N. Ramirez (Eds.), Beyond good teaching: Advancing mathematics education for ELLs (pp. 127-138). National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

[These four above are “quick” reads; easily shared with teachers, preservice teachers, to get a discussion going]

Civil, M., & Andrade, R. (2003). Collaborative practice with parents: The role of the researcher as mediator. In A. Peter-Koop, V. Santos-Wagner, C. Breen, & A. Begg (Eds.), Collaboration in teacher education: Examples from the context of mathematics education (pp. 153-168). Kluwer.

[this is one my first key writings on this work; parents as intellectual resources]

Civil, M., & Bernier, E. (2006). Exploring images of parental participation in mathematics education: Challenges and possibilities. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 8(3), 309-330.

[some power issues teachers – parents]

Civil, M., & Menéndez, J. M. (2011). Impressions of Mexican immigrant families on their early experiences with school mathematics in Arizona. In R. Kitchen & M. Civil (Eds.), Transnational and borderland studies in mathematics education (pp. 47-68). New York, NY: Routledge.

[focuses on three immigrant families]

Civil, M., & Planas, N. (2010). Latino/a immigrant parents’ voices in mathematics education.  In E. Grigorenko & R. Takanishi (Eds.), Immigration, diversity, and education (pp. 130-150). Routledge.

[focus on immigrant  parents’ views on the teaching and learning of mathematics]

Civil, M., & Quintos, B. (2009). Latina mothers’ perceptions about the teaching and learning of mathematics: Implications for parental participation. In B. Greer, S. Mukhopadhyay, S. Nelson-Barber, & A. Powell (Eds.), Culturally responsive mathematics education (pp. 321-343). Routledge.

[Parents visiting math classrooms]

Díez-Palomar, J., Menéndez, J. M., & Civil, M. (2011). Learning mathematics with adult learners: Drawing from parents’ perspectives. Revista Latinoamericana de Investigación en Matemática Educativa (RELIME), 14(1), 71-94.

[Parents as adult learners of mathematics]

Gomez, C. N., Jones, S. R. & Tanck, H. (2020). Whenever my Mom speaks Spanish at home. It helps me understand more in math: Reflections on the testimonios of bilingual Latinx students. Teaching for Excellence and Equity in Mathematics, 11(2), 43–51.

Gonzalez, N., Andrade, R., Civil, M., & Moll, L. (2001). Bridging funds of distributed knowledge: Creating zones of practices in mathematics. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 6, 115-132. doi: 10.1207/S15327671ESPR0601-2_7

TODOS sponsored Casio Education Webinar video: Black, Latinx, and Indigenous Parents as Resources: from Option to Imperative.  https://vimeo.com/445430455

TODOS Live! Webinar video:  Rethinking the Summer Slide: A TODOS Live EVent for Parents and Teachers, PreK-5 focus. https://vimeo.com/432371577



Bartell, T. G., Foote, M. Q., Drake, C., Roth McDuffie, A., Turner, E. E., & Aguirre, J. M. (2013). Developing teachers of Black children: (Re)orienting thinking in an elementary mathematics methods course. In J. Leonard & D. B. Martin (Eds.), The brilliance of Black children in mathematics: Beyond the numbers and toward a new discourse (pp. 343-367). Information Age.

Bell, D. (1992). Faces at the Bottom of the Well: The Permanence of Racism. New York.

Berry, R. Q. (2008). The stories of successful African American middle school boys. . Journal for Research in Mathematics Education39, 464 – 488.

Berry III, R. Q., Pinter, H. H., & McClain, O. L. (2013). A critical review of American K-12 mathematics education, 1900-present. In D. B. Martin & J. Leonard (Eds.) The Brilliance of Black Children in Mathematics (pp. 23-54). Information Age Publishing.

Bonilla-Silva, E. (2010). Racism without racists: Color-blind racism and the persistence of racial inequality in the United States. Rowman & Littlefield.

Collins, P. H. (2009). Another kind of public education: Race, schools, the media, and democratic possibilities. Beacon Press.

Delgado, R., & Stefancic, J. (2017). Critical race theory: An introduction (Vol. 20). NYU Press.

Diversity in Mathematics Education Center for Learning and Teaching. (2007). Culture, race, power, and mathematics education. F. Lester (Ed.), Second handbook of research on mathematics teaching and learning (Vol 1., pp. 450-434). National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. 

Flores, A. (2007). Examining disparities in mathematics education: Achievement gap or opportunity gap? High School Journal, 91(1), 29-42.

Gutiérrez, R. (2008). A “gap-gazing” fetish in mathematics education? Problematizing research on the achievement gap. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 39(4), 357-304.

Gutiérrez, R. (2013). The Sociopolitical Turn in Mathematics Education. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education 44(1): 37-68.

Jett, C. C. (2019). Mathematical persistence among four African American male graduate students: A critical race analysis of their experiences. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 50(3), 311-340.

Larnell, G. V., Bullock, E. C., & Jett, C. C. (2016). Rethinking teaching and learning mathematics for social justice from a critical race perspective. Journal of Education, 196(1), 19-29.

Leonard, J. & Martin, D. (Eds.) (2013). The Brilliance of Black Children in Mathematics.

Martin, D. (2009). Researching race in mathematics education. Teachers College Record 111(2), 295–338.

Martin, D. (2007). Beyond missionaries or cannibals: Who should teach mathematics to African American children? The High School Journal, 91(1), 6–28.

Martin, D. (2012). Learning mathematics while Black. Educational Foundations, 26(1-2), 47–66.

Martin, D. B. (2013). Race, racial projects, and mathematics education. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 44(1), 316-333.

Shah, N., & Leonardo, Z. (2017). Learning discourses of race and mathematics in classroom interaction: A poststructural perspective. In I. Esmonde & A. Booker (Eds.), Power and privilege in the learning sciences: Critical and sociocultural theories of learning (pp. 50-69). Routledge.

Stinson, D. W. (2006). African American male adolescents, schooling (and mathematics): Deficiency, rejection, and achievement. Review of Educational Research, 76(4), 477-506.

Tatum, B. D. (2017). Why are all of the Black Students Sitting Together in the Cafeteria?: And Other Conversations About Race. Basic Books.


White Supremacy

Battey, D. & Leyva, L. (2016). A framework for understanding whiteness in mathematics education. Journal of Urban Mathematics Education, 9(2), 49–80.

Joseph, N. M., Haynes, C.M., & Cobb, F. (Eds.) (2015). Interrogating Whiteness and relinquishing power: White faculty’s commitment to racial consciousness in STEM Classrooms. Peter Lang Publishers.

Kendi, I. X. (2019). How to be an Antiracist. One World/Ballantine.

Leonardo, Z. (2004) The Color of Supremacy: Beyond the discourse of ‘white privilege’, Educational Philosophy and Theory, 36(2), 137-152.

McIntosh, P. (1988). White privilege and male privilege: A personal account of coming to see correspondences through work in women’s studies. ” Available for $4.00 from the Wellesley College Center for Research on Women, Wellesley MA 02181.


Teaching Mathematics for Social Justice: Starting Points for Action


Aguirre, J. Mayfield-Ingram, K., & Martin, D. (2013). The Impact of Identity in K-8 Mathematics Learning and Teaching: Rethinking Equity-based Practices. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

Ayers, W.,  Hunt, J. A., & Quinn, T. (1998). Teaching for Social Justice. A Democracy and Education Reader. New York: New Press.

Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York: Herder and Herder.

Gutstein, E. (2006). Reading and writing the world with mathematics: Toward a pedagogy for social justice. Routledge.

Gutstein, Eric and Petersen, Bill (2013, 2nd Edition) Rethinking mathematics: teaching social justice by the numbers. Rethinking Schools.

Jacobsen, L. J., Mistele, J., & Sriraman, B. (Eds.). (2012), Mathematics teacher education in the public interest: Equity and social justice. Information Age.

Powell, A. B., & Frankenstein, M. (Eds.). (1997). Ethnomathematics: Challenging Eurocentrism in mathematics education (p. 63). State University of New York Press.

Tan, E., Barton, A.C., Turner, E., & Gutierrez, M. (2012). Empowering Science and Mathematics Education in Urban Schools. University of Chicago Press.

Wager, A. A., & Stinson, D. W. (Eds.). (2012). Teaching mathematics for social justice: Conversations with educators. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.



Aguirre, J.M & Civil, M. (Eds.) (Summer, 2016) Teaching for Equity and Excellence in Mathematics: Special Issue Mathematics education through the lens of social justice. 7(1). TODOS: Mathematics for All.

Sriraman, B. (2008). International perspectives on social justice in mathematics education (Vol. 1). Information Age.




Esmonde, I., & Caswell, B. (2010). Teaching mathematics for social justice in multicultural, multilingual elementary

classrooms. Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology Education, 10(3), 244-254.

Felton, M. D. (2010). Is math politically neutral? Teaching Children Mathematics, 17(2), 60–63.

Moschkovich, J. N. (2004). Appropriating mathematical practices: A case study of learning to use and explore functions through interaction with a tutor. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 55, 49-80.

Moschkovich, J.N. and Brenner, M. (2000). Integrating a naturalistic paradigm into research on mathematics and science cognition and learning. In R. Lesh & A. Kelly (Eds.) Handbook of research design in mathematics & science education (pp. 457-486). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

McCulloch, A. W., Marshall, P. L., & DeCuir-Gunby, J. T. (2009). Cultural capital in children's number representations. Teaching Children Mathematics, 16(3), 184-189.

Murphy, M. S. (2009). Mathematics and Social Justice in Grade 1: How Children Understand Inequality and Represent It. Young Children, 64(3), 12-17.

Simic-Muller, K., Turner, E.E., Varley, M. (2009). Math Club Problem Posing. Teaching Children Mathematics, 16(4) 206-212.

Turner, E. E., Gutiérrez, M. V., Simic-Muller, K., & Díez-Palomar, J. (2009). "Everything is math in the whole world": Integrating critical and community knowledge in authentic mathematical investigations with elementary Latina/o students. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 11(3), 136-157.

Varley Gutiérrez, M. (2010). "I thought this U.S. place was supposed to be about freedom: Young Latinas engage in mathematics and social change to save their school. Rethinking Schools Online, 24, 3, http://www.rethinkingschools.org/archive/24 02/24 02 freedoms.html


Middle School

Aguirre, J.M. & Zavala, M. (2013). When equal isn't fair. Using ratios to scale up mathematical arguments. In E. Gutstein & B. Peterson. Rethinking mathematics: Teaching social justice by the numbers. pp. 115-121. Rethinking Schools, Ltd.

Herbel-Eisenmann, B., & Shah, N. (2019). Detecting and reducing bias in questioning patterns. Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School, 24(5), 282-289.

Kitchen, R. & Lear, J. (2000). Mathematizing barbie: Using measurement as a means for girls to analyze their sense of body image. In …… Changing the faces of mathematics: Perspectives on multiculturalism and gender equity (pp. 67 - 75). (NEED EDITORS).

Lim, V., Rubel, L., Shookhoff, L., Sullivan, M., & Williams, S. (2016). The lottery is a mathematics powerball. Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School, 21(9), 526-532.

Simic-Muller, K. (2015). Social Justice and Proportional Reasoning. Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School, 21(3), 162-168.

Turner, E. & Font Strawhun, B. (2007, May). Posing problems that matter: Investigating school overcrowding. Teaching Children Mathematics. (pp. 457-463).


High School

Brelias, A. (2015). A high school statistics class investigates the death penalty. Mathematics Teacher, 108(9), 704-708.

Dean, J. A. N. A. (2007). Living algebra, living wage. Rethinking Schools, 21(4), 31-35.

Gutiérrez, R. (2009). Framing equity: Helping students "play the game" and "change the game." Teaching for Excellence and Equity in Mathematics, 1(1), 4-8.

Gutstein, E. (2013). Whose Community Is This? Mathematics of Neighborhood Displacement. Rethinking Schools, 27(3), 11-17.

Esmonde, I. (2014). "Nobody's rich and nobody's poor... it sounds good, but it's actually not": Affluent students learning mathematics and social justice. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 23(3), 348-391.

Rubel, L. H., Lim, V. Y., Hall-Wieckert, M., & Sullivan, M. (2016). Teaching Mathematics for Spatial Justice: An Investigation of the Lottery. Cognition and Instruction, 34(1), 1-26.

Rubel, L. H., Chu, H., & Shookhoff, L. (2011). Learning to Map and Mapping to Learn Our Students' Worlds. Mathematics Teacher, 104(8), 586-591.


Teacher Education

Aguirre, J. (2009) Privileging mathematics and equity in teacher education: Framework, counter-resistance strategies and reflections from a Latina mathematics educator. In B. Greer, S. Mukhopadhyay, S. Nelson Barber, and A. Powell (Eds). Culturally responsive mathematics education. pp. 295-319. Routledge.

Aguirre, J. M., Zavala, M. (2013). Making culturally responsive mathematics teaching explicit: a lesson analysis tool, Pedagogies: An International Journal, 8(2), pp. 163-190.

Aguirre, J.M., Zavala, M. & Katanyoutanant, T. (2012). Developing robust forms of pre-service teachers' pedagogical content knowledge through culturally responsive mathematics teaching analysis. Mathematics Teacher Education and Development, 14(2), 113-136. http://www.merga.net.au/documents/MTED 14 2 Aguirre et al.pdf

Bartell, T. G. (2013). Learning to teach mathematics for social justice: Negotiating social justice and mathematical goals. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 44(1), 129-163.

Felton-Koestler, M. D., & Koestler, C. (2017). Should mathematics teacher education be politically neutral?. Mathematics Teacher Educator, 6(1), 67-72.

Gonzalez, L. (2009). Teaching mathematics for social justice: Reflections on a community of practice for urban high school mathematics teachers. Journal of Urban Mathematics Education, 2(1), 22-51

Gorski, P. C. (2016). Poverty and the ideological imperative: A call to unhook from deficit and grit ideology and to strive for structural ideology in teacher education. Journal of Education for Teaching, 42(4), 378-386.

Gregson, S. A. (2013). Negotiating social justice teaching: One full-time teacher's practice viewed from the trenches. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 44(1), 164-198.

Gutiérrez, R. (2009). Embracing the inherent tensions in teaching mathematics from an equity stance. Democracy and Education, 18(3), 9-16.

Gutiérrez, R. (2013). Why (urban) mathematics teachers need political knowledge. Journal of Urban Mathematics Education. 6(2) 7-19.

Gutstein, E. (2007). Connecting community, critical, and classical knowledge in teaching mathematics for social justice. International Perspectives on Social Justice in Mathematics Education, 1, 153.

Gutstein, E. (2009). Possibilities and challenges in teaching mathematics for social justice. Critical Issues in Mathematics Education, 351-373.

Gutstein, E. (2012). Connecting community, critical, and classical knowledge in teaching mathematics for social justice. In Alternative forms of knowing (in) mathematics (pp. 300-311). Sense Publishers.

Kokka, K. (2015). Addressing Dilemmas of Social Justice Mathematics Instruction through Collaboration of Students, Educators, and Researchers. Educational Considerations, 43(1), 13-21.

Leonard, J., & Moore, C. M. (2014). Learning to enact social justice pedagogy in mathematics classrooms. Action in Teacher Education, 36(1), 76-95.

Osler, J. (2007). A guide for integrating issues of social and economic justice into mathematics curriculum. Retrieved March, 26, 2008. http://www.radicalmath.org/docs/SJMathGuide.pdf

Stinson, D. W., Bidwell, C, R., & Powell, G. C. (2012). Critical pedagogy and teaching mathematics for social justice. The International Journal of Critical Pedagogy, 4(1).


Creating Balance in an Unjust World: Conference on Mathematics Education and Social Justice http://creatingbalanceconference.org/  

Cult of Pedagogy: teacher nerds unite http://www.cultofpedagogy.com/social-justice-resources/ 

Radical Math http://www.radicalmath.org/  

TODOS Blog: Alerta! https://www.todos-math.org/the-todos-blog

Using Their Words (elementary focused) http://www.usingtheirwords.org  http://www.usingtheirwords.org/category/subject/math-subject/ http://www.usingtheirwords.org/classroom-projects/


Research Journals that make it their Business to Increase the Visibility of Mathematics Equity and Social Justice

 The Journal of Urban Mathematics Education and Teaching for Excellence and Equity in Mathematics (A research journal from TODOS: Mathematics for ALL)

Both of these journals are dedicated to rigorous mathematics education research at the forefront of equity and social justice, and are freely available online.

The Journal of Urban Mathematics Education states, “The mission of the journal is to foster a transformative global academic space in mathematics that embraces critical research, emancipatory pedagogy, and scholarship of engagement in urban communities. Here, the view of the urban domain extends beyond the geographical context, into the lives of people within the multitude of cultural, social, and political spaces in which mathematics teaching and learning takes place." Both the original research and commentary sections are resources for readings for MTEs as well as their PSTs. In particular, frequently I have PSTs read and respond to Rochelle Gutierrez' 2013 commentary, Why (Urban) Mathematics Teachers Need Political Knowledge.

As stated on the Teaching for Excellence and Equity in Mathematics homepage, “The journal aims especially to engage mathematics education topics involving excellence and equity simultaneously (rather than either in isolation) in a way that connects research to classroom practice and can directly inform the practice of teachers or professional developers.” Many research articles also have questions for reflection, which is very useful for engaging PSTs.

The Equity and Access PreK-12 series from NCTM.org

Because it's organized into 4 grade level band books, MTEs can focus on the bands applicable to their level (in my case, Prek-2 and 3-5). The chapters featured in this series are all focused on the NCTM Equity principle, however the newness of the research means that many chapters also push the boundaries of how we think about equity in new ways, including attention to intersectional analyses. A great resource for MTEs and their PSTs alike.

The book Rethinking Mathematics, 2nd Ed. in particular, and the Rethinking Schools Publishers in general

Still the best collection of chapters dedicated to social justice in the mathematics classroom. In addition to providing an introduction that frames what is meant by teaching for social justice, there is a chapter by a new teacher that illustrates her journey in developing socially just mathematics lessons, chapters geared towards elementary teachers as well as middle and high school. There are plenty of activity suggestions and lesson ideas.



TODOS Mathematics for All! Podcast: https://todosmath.podomatic.com/

Suggested episodes: All of it!


MTE Podcast: https://mtepodcast.amte.net/

Suggested episodes:

Engaging Teachers in the Powerful Combination of Mathematical Modeling and Social Justice: The Flint Water Task https://mtepodcast.amte.net/8


Teaching Math Teaching Podcast: https://www.teachingmathteachingpodcast.com/

Suggested episodes:

            Marrielle Myers: Supporting Preservice Teachers of Color


Nico Gomez: Foregrounding Issues and Questions to Work on Our Identity


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