Standard P.3. Opportunities to Learn to Teach Mathematics 

An effective mathematics teacher preparation program provides candidates with multiple opportunities to learn to teach through mathematicsspecific methods courses (or equivalent professional learning experiences) in which mathematics, practices for teaching mathematics, knowledge of students as learners, and the social contexts of mathematics teaching and learning are integrated. 
P.3.1. Address Deep and Meaningful Mathematics Content Knowledge P.3.2. Provide Foundations of Knowledge About Students as Mathematics Learners P.3.3. Address the Social Contexts of Teaching and Learning 
A highquality preparation program for teachers of mathematics at the upper elementary level provides opportunities for them to learn to teach mathematics by participating in welldesigned, mathematicsspecific methods courses.
UE.8. Mathematics Methods Coursework for Upper Elementary Teachers of Mathematics
Effective programs for preparing teachers of mathematics at the upper elementary level include at least one mathematics methods course, or the equivalent experience of 3 semester units, focused particularly on mathematics teaching and learning in upper elementary grades. [Elaboration of P.3.1, P.3.2, P.3.3, and P.3.4]
Effective programs include coursework dedicated to the development of contentspecific practices, techniques, and habits of mind or dispositions that support sound mathematics teaching. The demands of teaching and learning of mathematics in the 21^{st} century require at least one mathematics methods course focused on upper elementary grades to fully prepare new teachers with strong foundations for success. Given the goal of educating teachers of mathematics who are wellprepared, the oftenchallenging nature of initial teaching assignments, and the breadth and depth of practices and dispositions needed, programs that provide certification to broad gradebands (such as PreK–5 or K–8) ensure that candidates have more than one mathematics methods course. At the same time, we acknowledge that differences in the designs of teacher preparation programs will shape the ways in which this goal is achieved. As a field, we need to subject these approaches to appropriate scrutiny to ensure that program candidates are actually well prepared.
Effective methods courses include opportunities for teacher candidates to engage in mathematics, learn about students' mathematical thinking and solution strategies, identify and integrate students' lived experiences and funds of knowledge into mathematics lessons, learn various pedagogical strategies discussed in Chapter 2 and use assessment to build on students' understandings and support and extend their learning.